Oops! It appears that you have disabled your Javascript. In order for you to see this page as it is meant to appear, we ask that you please re-enable your Javascript!

Playing is not a game: videogames, passatempo o potenziale pericolo?

 In @buse, N. 2 - giugno 2013, Anno 4

Per questo motivo, a proposito di supervisione adeguata, non può dirsi superfluo raccomandare ai genitori di assumere, tra gli altri, anche l’importante compito educativo ed affettivo nel far sì che i videogiochi non divengano sostitutivi di attività e metodi fondamentali per lo sviluppo cognitivo e la prosocialità (apprendimento scolastico, lettura, esercizio fisico, giochi tradizionali con i pari, etc..). È compito dei genitori stabilire le modalità attraverso le quali i figli possano usufruire di questo specifico intrattenimento, stabilendo regole precise in età giovanile con l’auspicio che esse vengano seguite anche in giovane età adulta, quando si acquisisce un maggiore senso critico. Tali regole, si specifica, non necessariamente richiedono un atteggiamento repressivo: si hanno sicuramente risultati più proficui con uno stile più collaborativo, del tipo «se finisci presto i tuoi compiti, dopo verrò a giocare con te».

Un altro aspetto che merita di essere menzionato è la necessità che i genitori siano messi al corrente dei sistemi di classificazione che indicano il pubblico a cui ciascun titolo, in base ai suoi contenuti, è adatto. Questo indice, denominato Pan European Game Information (PEGI)[8], che per la verità è ben visibile sulle confezioni dei videogiochi, è spesso misconosciuto o ignorato, mentre potrebbe essere un valido supporto nell’orientare gli adulti e coloro che generalmente acquistano i giochi per i più giovani, al fine di scegliere i titoli adatti per i bambini e gli adolescenti.

Ad ogni modo, scopo della ricerca è diffondere sempre quanto scoperto: anche laddove siano stati riscontrati labili risultati negativi, ognuno di esso ha la potenzialità di contribuire alla tutela della salute e della sicurezza pubblica.

Bibliografia

  • Achtman R.L., Green C.S. & Bavelier D. (2008), Video games as a tool to train visual skills, Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 26(4-5):435-446
  • Anderson C. (2004), An update on the effects of playing violent video games, Journal of Adolescence, 27:113-122
  • Anderson C.A. & Bushman B.J. (2001), Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature, Psychological Science, 12(5):353-359
  • Anderson C.A. & Bushman B.J. (2002), Human aggression, Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1):27-51
  • Anderson C.A. & Dill K.E. (2000), Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(4):772-790
  • Anderson A.F. & Bavelier D. (2011), Action game play as a tool to enhance perception, attention and cognition, in Tobias S., Fletcher J.D. “Computer games and instruction” (pp. 307-329), Charlotte, NC US: IAP Information Age Publishing
  • Bailey S.M. (1993), Brief communication, Criminal Justice Matters, 6:6-7
  • Basak C., Boot W.R., Voss M.W. & Kramer A.F. (2008), Can training in a real-time strategy video game attenuate cognitive decline in older adults?, Psychology and Aging, 23(4):765-777.
  • Bavelier D., Green C., Pouget A., & Schrater P. (2012), Brain plasticity through the life span: Learning to learn and action video games, Annual Review Of Neuroscience, 35:391-416
  • Bavelier D., Green C.S., Seidenberg M.S., (2013), Cognitive Development: Gaming Your Way Out Of Dyslexia?, Current Biology, 23(7):282-283
  • Bensley L. & Van Eeywyk J. (2001), Video-games and real-life aggression: review of the literature, Journal of Adolescent Health, 29(4):244-257
  • Bonis J. (2007), Acute Wiiitis, The New England Journal of Medicine, 356:2431-2432
  • Boot W.R., Kramer A.F., Simons D.J., Fabiani M. & Gratton G. (2008), The effects of video game playing on attention, memory, and executive control, Acta Psychologica, 129(3):387–398
  • Brasington R. (1990), Nintendinitis, The New England Journal of Medicine, 322(20):1473-1474
  • Brian D. & Wiemer-Hastings P. (2005), Addiction to the Internet and Online Gaming, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 8(2):110-113
  • Browne K.D. & Pennell A.E. (1998), Effects of video violence on young offenders, Research Findings, 65:1-4
  • Browne K.D. & Pennell A.E. (2000), The influence of film and video on young people and violence, in Boswell G., “Violent children and adolescents: asking the question why”, London and Philadelphia, Whurr: 151-168
  • Browne K.D. & Hamilton-Giachritsis C. (2005), The influence of violent media on children and adolescents: a public-health approach, Lancet, 365(9460):702-710.
  • Chabris C.F. & Simons D. J. (2010), The Invisible Gorilla, Crown Publishing Group, Random House Inc., New York, trad. Ita “Il gorilla invisibile…e altri modi in cui le nostre intuizioni ci ingannano”, 2012, Il Sole 24 Ore, Milano.
  • Chiappe D., Conger M., Liao J., Caldwell J.L. & Vu K.P.L. (2013), Improving multi-tasking ability through action videogames, Applied Ergonomics, 44(2):278–284
  • Colzato L., van den Wildenberg W., Zmigrod S., Hommel B. (2012), Action video gaming and cognitive control: playing Wrst person shooter games is associated with improvement in working memory but not action inhibition, Psychological Research, 77:234–239
  • Colzato L.S., van Leeuwen P.J.A., van den Wildenberg W. & Hommel B. (2010), DOOM’d to switch: Superior cognitive flexibility in players of first person shooter games, Frontiers in Cognition, 1(8)
  • Cooper J. & Mackie D. (1986), Video games and aggression in children, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 16:726-744
  • Dominick J.R., Videogames, television violence, and aggression in teenagers, 1984, Journal of Communication, 34(2):136-147
  • Donohue T.R., Henke L.L. & Morgan L.A. (1988), The impact of television’s role models on physically abused children, Child Study Journal, 18(3):233-247
  • Dye M.G., Green C.S. & Bavelier D.D. (2009b), The development of attention skills in action video game players, Neuropsychologia 47(8-9):1780-1789
  • Dye M.G., Green C. & Bavelier D. (2009a), Increasing speed of processing with action video games, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18(6):321-326
  • Eley K.A. (2010), A Wii Fracture, The New England Journal of Medicine, 362:473-474
  • Farrington D.P. (1995), The development of offending and anti-social behaviour from childhood: key findings from the Cambridge Study in delinquent development, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36(6):929-964
  • Fling S., Smith L., Rodriguez T., Thornton D., Atkins E. & Nixon K., Videogames, aggression, and self-esteem: a survey, 1992, Social Behavior and Personality, 20:39-46
  • Franceschini S., Gori S., Ruffino M., Viola S., Molteni M. & Facoetti A. (2013), Action Video Games Make Dyslexic Children Read Better, Current Biology, 23(6):462-466
  • Graybill D., Strawniak M., Hunter T. & O’Leary M., Effects of playing versus observing violent versus nonviolent video games on children’s aggression, 1987, Psychology: A Quarterly Journal of Human Behavior,  24(3):1-8
  • Green C.S., Sugarman M.A., Medford K., Klobusicky E. & Bavelier D. (2012), The effect of action video game experience on task-switching, Computers In Human Behavior, 28(3):984-994
  • Green C.S. & Bavelier D. (2003), Action video game modifies visual selective attention, Nature, 423(6939):534-537
  • Green C.S., Li R. & Bavelier D. (2010), Perceptual learning during action video game playing, Topics in Cognitive Science, 2(2):202-216
  • Grüsser S.M., Thalemann R. & Griffiths M.D. (2007), Excessive computer game playing: evidence for addiction and aggression?, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10(2):290-292
  • Hutter E. & Sundar S. (2008), Can video games enhance creativity? An experimental investigation of emotion generated by Dance Dance Revolution, Presentazione Congressuale, 58th Annual Conference of the International Communication Association, Montreal – Quebec – Canada, May 22-26, 2008, Session “Games Studies Top Papers”
  • Irwin A.R. & Gross A.M. (1995), Cognitive tempo, violent videogames, and aggressive behavior in young boys, Journal of Family Violence, 10:337-350
  • Kristjánsson Á. (2013), The case for causal influences of action videogame play upon vision and attention, Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 75(4):667-672
  • Kuss D.J., Louws J. & Wiers R.W. (2012), Online Gaming Addiction? Motives Predict Addictive Play Behavior in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(9):480-485
  • Lemmens J.S., Valkenburg P.M., P. Jochen (2011), Psychosocial causes and consequences of pathological gaming, Computers in Human Behavior, 27(1):144-152
  • Lin S. & Lepper M.R. (1987), Correlates of children’s usage of videogames and computers, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 17(1):72-93
  • Jolliffe D. & Farrington D.P. (2004), Empathy and offending: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Aggression and Violent Behavior, 9(5):441-476
  • Mathers M., Canterford L., Olds T., Hesketh K., Ridley K. & Wake M. (2009), Electronic media use and adolescent health and well-being: cross-sectional community study, Academic Pediatrics, 9(5):307-314
  • Meloy J.R. & Mohandie K. (2001), Investigating the role of screen violence in specific homicide cases, Journal of Forensic Science, 46(5):1113–1118
  • Pelletier C. & Oliver M. (2006), Learning to play in digital games, Learning, Media and Technology, 31(4):329-342
  • Pelletier C. (2009), Games and Learning: What’s the Connection?, International Journal of Learning and Media, 1(1):83-101
  • Peters C.S. & Malesky L.A. (2008), Problematic usage among highly-engaged players of massively multiplayer online role playing games, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11(4):481-484
  • Saposnik G. & Levin M. (2011), Virtual Reality In Stroke Rehabilitation. A Meta-Analysis And Implications For Clinicians, Stroke: Journal of The American Heart Association, 42:1380-1386
  • Savage J. (2004), Does viewing violent media really cause criminal violence? A methodological review, Aggression and Violent Behavior, 10:99–128
  • Schutte N.S., Malouff J.M., Post-Gorden J.C. & Rodasta A.L. (1988), Effects of playing video games on children’s aggressive and other behaviors, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18:454-460.
  • Sherry J.L. (2001), The effects of violent video games on aggression – a meta-analysis, Human Communication Research, 27(3):409-431
  • Silvern S.B. & Williamson P.A. (1987), The effects of video game play on young children’s aggression, fantasy and prosocial behavior, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 8:453-462
  • Slater M.D., Henry K.L., Swaim R.C. & Anderson L.L. (2003), Violent media content and aggressiveness in adolescents: a downward spiral model, Communication Research, 30(6):713-736
  • Surette R. (2002), Self-reported copycat crime among a population of serious and violent juvenile offenders, Crime & Delinquency, 48(1):46-69
  • Whitlock L.A., McLaughlin A.C. & Allaire J.C. (2012), Individual differences in response to cognitive training: Using a multi-modal, attentionally demanding game-based intervention for older adults, Computers in Human Behavior, 28(4):1091-1096
  • Wu S. & Spence I. (2013), Playing shooter and driving videogames improves top-down guidance in visual search, Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 75(4):673-86

Rapporti

  • ISTAT, Bambini e new media: personal computer, internet e videogiochi, 2001
  • AESVI-IARD, Cultura del Videogioco: mondo giovanile e mondo adulto a confronto, 2006
  • Centro Studi Minori e Media, Minori in Videogioco, 2007
  • ISTAT, La vita quotidiana di bambini e ragazzi, 2008



[8] Il PEGI è stato sviluppato tra il 2001 ed il 2002 da un gruppo di lavoro che, dopo aver analizzato tutti i sistemi nazionali preesistenti, su impulso dell’Associazione Europea degli Editori di Software Interattivo ISFE (Interactive Software Federation of Europe) e con il sostegno della Commissione Europea, l’ha reso operativo da aprile 2003. La scelta di optare per un sistema unitario a livello europeo è stata inevitabile in considerazione del fatto che la maggior parte dei giochi venduti in Europa sono identici, tranne che per lingua e confezione, e dunque l’Europa oggi è diventata un mercato unico per i videogiochi. Attualmente il PEGI viene applicato a prodotti distribuiti nei seguenti sedici paesi: Austria, Belgio, Danimarca, Finlandia, Francia, Grecia, Irlanda, Italia, Lussemburgo, Paesi Bassi, Norvegia, Portogallo, Spagna, Svezia, Svizzera e Regno Unito.

Utilizzando il sito, accetti l'utilizzo dei cookie da parte nostra. maggiori informazioni

Questo sito utilizza i cookie per fornire la migliore esperienza di navigazione possibile. Continuando a utilizzare questo sito senza modificare le impostazioni dei cookie o cliccando su "Accetta" permetti il loro utilizzo.

Chiudi